Reef Pro’s Bio-EX is the best solution available for maintaining nutrients at the desired levels. It is a carefully devised formula that was created with the intent to make it easier for any hobbyist to maintain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates at the desired levels. This formula creates the perfect environment for a specific group of bacteria to inhabit the aquaria and thrive. These bacteria are the key to maintaining a hospitable and well established system. Bio-Ex is also very manageable and easy to control whereas other nutrient control systems, such as refugiums and denitrators, are harder to control and maintain the happy medium our systems desire.
At Reef Pro we have been experimenting with different organic carbon sources for quite some time. Our goal was to fully understand how the nitrification and denitrification process works in our aquariums. By further understanding this process and the bacteria within these processes we hoped to create a formula which would help make the denitrification process in our aquariums much more efficient but without some of the negative side effects we encountered when dosing with just specific carbon sources and at different concentrations.
In our research we found that there is a wide range of bacteria involved in both the nitrification and denitrification process. In this case we are more interested in denitrification. There are several groups of denitrifying bacteria and each one is commited to the same purpose. Denitrification is for the most part a heterotrophic process. This means that it is done by heterotrophic bacteria. Heterotrophic bacteria, convert nitrates to gaseous nitrogen (N2) by using energy they gain from feeding on carbon sources and by using nitrate for an electron acceptor versus oxygen. This is why this process only takes place in anaerobic conditions. Along with the previously mentioned bacteria there are also types of sulfate reducing bacteria, and phosphate accumulating bacteria.
All of these bacteria thrive based on the amount of nutrients available. The amount of certain nutrients can be an important factor in the denitrification process. This ratio is labeled the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio). Based on this ratio, denitrification can be inhibited or promoted. Denitirification consists of two dissimilatory pathways in which bacteria can reduce nitrates. A certain strain of bacteria called DNRA (Dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction of ammonium) bacteria convert nitrates and nitrite to ammonia and nitrous oxide (N2O). We have found that an improper C/N ratio or an imbalance in certain elements and co-factors can have a negative effect on the denitrification process by promoting DNRA activity, ending in accumulation of toxic ammonia and N2O rather than a final product of gaseous nitrogen (N2).What we have done is create a specific formula in which all the correct carbon sources are used at the proper levels needed to encourage the correct dissimilatory pathway.
Another negative side effect of improper balanced carbon sources is the production of hydrogen sulfide in the aquarium. SRB’s (sulfate reduction bacteria) are standard in any aquarium. These bacteria can compete with the heterotrophic bacteria for the carbon sources and can accelerate in the production of hydrogen sulfide. What we have done is added a specific blend of elements which will inhibit the SRB’s from consuming the carbon sources and using it to produce hydrogen sulfide in your aquarium.
An added bonus to the Bio-EX formula is that it will remove minimal amounts of phosphate. We do not recommend it for phosphate control but in certain systems, based on feeding habits and livestock; it has been proven to maintain phosphates under control to an extent. The reason for this is there are certain heterotrophic bacteria known as PHA’s (Phosphate accumulating bacteria) that will actually accumulate and synthesize Poly-P during nitrate reduction. As these bacteria accumulate the phosphates from the water column they are then skimmed out via your skimmer resulting in a decrease in phosphates.
Reef Pro’s Bio-Ex is the solution to every hobbyists nutrient control problem. It is the perfect blend of organic carbon sources mixed with certain elements and containing a variety of important factors required to promote the proper denitrification process. It has been tested and perfected to show no negative side effects of toxic ammonia and nitrous oxide accumulation and reduces hydrogen sulfide production. Bio-Ex’s versatility allows the hobbyist to control nutrient levels and maintain desired levels in the aquaria. Unlike denitrifiers or refugiums which allow you no control of how many nutrients are stripped out of the water sometimes leading to an over stripping of the water and leaving organisms starving for nutrients.